Weekly Analysis

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ALL INDIA RADIO (AIR) DISCUSSION : Importance of Internal Security for Good Governance

The Editorial covers GS paper 3: Internal Security

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  • The concept of "governance" is not new. 
  • The actual meaning of the concept depends on the level of governance we are talking about, the goals to be achieved and the approach being followed.
  • The World Bank's focus on governance reflects the worldwide thrust toward political and economic liberalisation. 
  • Such a governance approach highlights issues of greater state responsiveness and accountability, and the impact of these factors on political stability and economic development. 

What do we understand by ‘Good Governance’?

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  • Good Governance is an approach to government that is committed to creating a system founded in justice and peace that protects individual’s human rights and civil liberties. 
  • According to the United Nations, Good Governance is measured by the eight factors of 
    • Participation, 
    • Rule of Law, 
    • Transparency, 
    • Responsiveness, 
    • Consensus Oriented, 
    • Equity and Inclusiveness, 
    • Effectiveness and Efficiency, and 
    • Accountability.

How do we explain ‘Good Governance’?

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  • Participation requires that all groups, particularly those most vulnerable, have direct or representative access to the systems of government. This manifests as a strong civil society and citizens with the freedom of association and expression.
  • Rule of Law is exemplified by impartial legal systems that protect the human rights and civil liberties of all citizens, particularly minorities. This is indicated by an independent judicial branch and a police force free from corruption.
  • Transparency means that citizens understand and have access to the means and manner in which decisions are made, especially if they are directly affected by such decisions. This information must be provided in an understandable and accessible format, typically translated through the media.
  • Responsiveness simply involves that institutions respond to their stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.
  • Consensus Oriented is demonstrated by an agenda that seeks to mediate between the many different needs, perspectives, and expectations of a diverse citizenry. Decisions needs to be made in a manner that reflects a deep understanding of the historical, cultural, and social context of the community.
  • Equity and Inclusiveness depends on ensuring that all the members of a community feel included and empowered to improve or maintain their well being, especially those individuals and groups that are the most vulnerable.
  • Effectiveness and Efficiency is developed through the sustainable use of resources to meet the needs of a society. Sustainability refers to both ensuring social investments carry through and natural resources are maintained for future generations.
  • Accountability refers to institutions being ultimately accountable to the people and one another. This includes government agencies, civil society, and the private sector all being accountable to one another as well.

How do we link Good Governance and Internal Security?

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  • There is always a crucial link between “National Governance” and “Internal Security”. 
  • If Internal Security is not maintained Governance cannot be delivered and there would be grave threats to the very unity and integrity of the country. 
  • Likewise, Internal Security cannot be safeguarded if Governance is delivered by an inefficient and corrupt administration.
  • It is perhaps not necessary to define Governance. 
  • However, in the simplest terms, governance relates to the effective management of national affairs at all levels of functioning – guaranteeing the country’s unity and integrity and securing the safety and overall welfare of its people. 
  • For the attainment of these objectives it would be essential that political, economic, executive and judicial authority is exercised in a manner which ensures that the people are enabled to enjoy their rights, discharge their obligations and resolve their disputes within the parameters of the Constitution and the Rule of Law.
  • Internally in India, whether you talk about the Maoist insurgency or the Kashmir problem, the actual issue is a lack of governance, the lack of development. 
  • The average, ordinary person, be it anywhere in the world, wants to lead a peaceful life. 
  • So what encourages them to take up arms? It is the lack of opportunities, the lack of the hope of having a better life. 


  • What happens is that the civil administration fails to keep up after the military has done its job. 
  • This is exactly what has been happening in Kashmir, there is no growth, no employment opportunities, and no presence of government for the people to go and complain to. 
  • In such a situation, people will happily follow whoever comes in and offers the hope, however false, of something better. 
  • This is the primary cause of such insurgencies. And ultimately, the military is forced to do the same thing over and over, it becomes an endless cycle. But ultimately, it’s a governance failure.
  • Good governance therefore should, and must result in decision making that is fruitful and beneficial for the masses and through which they feel secure and participative as if they themselves would have made those decisions.