Daily Analysis

An in-depth analysis of the best and most relevant editorials of the day from the best dailies known for civil services preparation.

DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS, 09th August 2019

How Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh propose to check lynching? 

Focus: GS1.

Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Image result for Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh propose to check lynching

Context

  • The Rajasthan government has passed the Rajasthan Protection from Lynching Bill, 2019.
  • The Madhya Pradesh government has also introduced a Bill that seeks to curb cow vigilantism and mob lynching.

Background

  • State Law Commission in Uttar Pradesh has drafted the UP Combating of Mob Lynching Bill, 2019, and submitted it to Chief Minister.
  • These developments follow 2018 Supreme Court verdict in the case of Tehseen S. Poonawalla vs. Union of India where SC had recommended the central government should enact a legislation to create a separate offence for lynching

Salient features of the bill

  • Rajasthan Protection from Lynching Bill, 2019 makes mob lynching a cognisable, non-bailable and non-compoundable offence.
  • It defines lynching as an act of violence, whether spontaneous or planned, by a mob on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, language, dietary practices, sexual orientation, political affiliation and ethnicity.
  • It provides for life imprisonment and a fine of up to Rs 5 lakh to convicts in cases of mob lynching involving the victim’s death.
  • It also provides for appointment of a nodal officer of the rank of Inspector-General of Police to prevent lynching and establishment of relief camps in safe zones for the victims.

Highlights

  • The Madhya Pradesh bill seeks to amend the Madhya Pradesh Govansh Vadh Pratishedh Act, 2004. 
  • It proposes a minimum jail term of six months that may be extended to one year for cow vigilantism and lynching. 
  • The minimum fine is Rs 5,000 and the maximum Rs 50,000.
  • It also seeks to insert a provision which will specify who issues the transit permit of cow progeny, which will be pasted prominently on the vehicle.

Source: The Hindu. 

Which country has most number of languages?

Focus: GS1.

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Image result for Which country has most number of languages? Not India

Context

  • According to Ethnologue, there are 7,111 living languages (languages that are still being used and spoken by people) worldwide. Chinese, Spanish, English, Hindi and Arabic are the most widely spoken languages worldwide when only first-languages are considered.
  • Asia and Africa account for the highest number of indigenous languages (over 70% of the total). 

Background

  • Papua New Guinea has the highest number of ‘living’ indigenous languages in the world (840). 
  • India has been ranked 4th (453).
  • Ethnologue has also put forward a ‘Greenberg’s diversity index’. 
  • It is the probability that any two people of the country selected at random would have different mother tongues.
  • The value ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates no diversity (everyone has the same mother tongue) and 1 indicates total diversity (no two people will have the same mother tongue). 
  • India has a diversity value of 0.9
  • According to UNESCO’s ‘Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger’, 228 languages have become extinct since 1950. 
  • About 10% of the languages are classified ‘vulnerable’. 
  • 10% are ‘critically endangered’.

Highlights

  • In India, 5 languages have become extinct since 1950. 
  • 42 languages are critically endangered.
  • United Nations has announced 2019 as the International Year of Indigenous Languages.
  • It aims to promote indigenous languages in five key areas: 
  • a) Increasing understanding, reconciliation and international cooperation, 
  • b) Creation of favourable conditions for knowledge-sharing and dissemination of good practices, 
  • c) Integration of indigenous languages into standard setting, 
  • d) Empowerment through capacity building and 
  • e) Growth and development through elaboration of new knowledge.
  • Ethnologue is an annual publication that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. 
  • It is published by US-based SIL International.

Source: The Hindu. 

ISRO’s mini launcher SSLV is unborn but has 2 flights booked

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Image result for ISRO’s mini launcher SSLV is unborn but has 2 flights booked

Why in News?

  • US-based satellite rideshare and mission management provider Spaceflight has signed a deal with New Space India Ltd (NSIL) for payload slot on the first commercial launch of Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV).
  • The SSLV has been developed by ISRO. 
  • Its first flight is expected to take place from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in late 2019.

Background

  • SSLV rockets are capable of putting a payload of 500 kg to mid-inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO). 
  • It can also put a payload of 300 kg to Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO)
  • NSIL is a recently established commercial subsidiary of the ISRO. 
  • It is under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS).

Highlights

  • The NSIL has been set up to meet the increasing demands of Indian space programmes and to commercially exploit the emerging global space market.
  • The main functions of NSIL are: 
a) Manufacture of Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) in collaboration with Private Sector, 
b) production of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) through Indian Industry, 
c) production and marketing of Space based products and services, including launch and application, 
d) Transfer of technology developed by ISRO Centres and constituent units of DOS and 
e) Marketing spin-off technologies and products/services, both in India and abroad.
  • NSIL is the second commercial entity of the Department of Space (DoS) after Antrix Corporation Limited which was set up in 1992.
  • Antrix was established to market the products and services of the ISRO.

Source: The Hindu.

3 days before Ranbir Penal Code was replaced by IPC, SC struck down its adultery clause

Topic: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Context

  • The Supreme Court on 2nd August had struck down Section 497 of the Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) that dealt with adultery, holding it “unconstitutional”. 
  • RPC is the criminal code applicable to Jammu and Kashmir.


Background

  • In September 2018, the Supreme Court had struck down Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code, which criminalized adultery.
  • Section 497 of the IPC punished a married man for having sex with wife of another man. 
  • However, sexual intercourse is was exempted from punishment if it was done with the “consent or connivance” of other woman’s husband. 
  • It criminalised only the man and not the woman involved.
  • The only difference between section 497 of IPC and Sec 497 of RPC is that RPC states that the wife shall be punishable as an abettor.


Highlights

  • Section 497 was declared unconstitutional down by SC on the grounds that it violated Article 14, Article 15 and Article 21 of the constitution.
  • It violated Article 14 (Equality before Law) as it punished only men for adultery. 
  • It violated Article 15 (Right against discrimination) as it discriminated on the ground of sex -treats wife as husband’s property. 
  • It violated Article 21 (Right to Life) as it violated one’s right to privacy.

Source: The Hindu.

Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial (Amendment) Bill deferred in RS

Topic: The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

Image result for Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Bill deferred in Rajya Sabha

Context

  • The Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial (Amendment) Bill, 2019 has not been passed in the Raj Sabha due to lack of broad consensus on the bill.
  • The bill seeks to amend the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act, 1951.


Background

  • The Act provides for the erection of a National Memorial in memory of those killed or wounded in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (13th April, 1919). 
  • It also creates a trust for managing the memorial.
  • Currently, the trust comprises the Prime Minister, the Congress president, Culture Minister, Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha, Punjab Governor, and Punjab CM as its members.


Highlights

  • However, the Amendment Bill seeks to remove the Congress president from the trustees list. 
  • The bill has said that when there is no Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, then the leader of the single largest opposition party will be the Trustee.
  • The 1951 Act provides that the three trustees nominated by the central government will be trustees for a period of five years and will be eligible for renomination.
  • However, the bill has provided that the central government can terminate the term of a nominated trustee before the expiry of the period of his term without assigning any reason. 

Source: The Hindu.


Mexico’s cactus offers alternative to plastics

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.


Context

  • A Mexican researcher has invented a new form of biodegradable plastic made primarily from the juice of prickly pear cactus (opuntia).

Background

  • The pulp of the prickly pear is mixed with non-toxic additives to produce sheets that can be used for packaging.

Highlights

  • In March 2019, UN member states at the United Nations Environmental Assembly (UNEA) in Nairobi, Kenya, pledged to significantly reduce single-use plastic products by 2030.
  • Single-use plastics, or disposable plastics, are the ones which are used only once before they are thrown away or recycled. 
  • Example: plastic straws, plastic bottles, plastic cutlery etc.

Source: The Hindu.

Map of the Day–Odisha

Image result for odisha map

Quote for the Day

"The successful warrior is the average man, with laser-like focus.” -  Bruce Lee

Mains Answer Writing

1.Mob lynching is the existing problem in India recent days. In this context analyse the salient features of Rajasthan Protection from Lynching Bill, 2019.
2.Discuss the criteria for classical language status.
3.Explain the significance of Jallianwala Bagh Incident in India’s freedom struggle.

 

Test your Knowledge

1. Consider the following statements 

1.India has the highest number of ‘living’ indigenous languages in the world.
2.Papua New Guinea has been ranked 4th.
3.‘Greenberg’s diversity index’ is the probability that any two people of the country selected at random would have different mother tongues.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

2. Consider the following statements:

1.United Nations has announced 2019 as the International Year of Indigenous Languages.
2.Ethnologue is an annual publication that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
3.It is published by UNESCO.


Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

3. Consider the following statements:

a.Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)  has been developed by DRDO.
b.SSLV rockets are capable of putting a payload of 500 kg to mid-inclination Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
c.SSLV rockets are capable of putting a payload of 300 kg to Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO)

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above

4.Ranbir Penal Code (RPC) is applicable to?

a.Sikkim
b.Mizoram
c.Jammu and Kashmir
d.Goa

5.Jallianwala Bagh massacre happened on?

a.13th April, 1919
b.13th April, 1918
c.13th April, 1917
d.13th April, 1920

Answers

  1. A 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.A