Daily Analysis

An in-depth analysis of the best and most relevant editorials of the day from the best dailies known for civil services preparation.

DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS, 7th October 2019


President of India

Focus: GS2.

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive.

Image result for president of india pardoning power

Context

  • The President commuted death sentences to life imprisonment in at least 20 cases over the past nine years, based on the recommendations received from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • These commutations were based on the President’s exercise of powers under Article 72 of the Constitution after the convicts filed mercy petitions.  

Presidents pardoning powers

Article 72 says that:

  • The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence

(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a court Martial;

(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;

(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death  

Explanation

  • The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. 
  • If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. 
  • The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him.
  • ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. 
  •  For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years.
  • ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. 
  •  For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. 
  • ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. 
  • For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment.
  • ‘Reprieve’ means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to enable the convict to have time to seek pardon from the President.
  • Literally, it means the suspension of the punishment for the time being.

Source: The Hindu.


Monetary Policy Committee

Focus: GS3.

Topic: mobilization of resources.

Image result for Monetary Policy Committee

Context

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on October 4 cut the repo rate — its key lending rate — by 25 basis points to 5.15 percent, triggering hopes for cheaper loans during the festival season, but sharply lowered the economy’s growth projections amid persistent slowdown in household spending.

About Repo rate

  • Repo rate, or repurchase rate, is the rate at which RBI lends to banks for short periods.
  • This is done by RBI buying government bonds from banks with an agreement to sell them back at a fixed rate.

About the committee

  • The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Central Bank in India (Reserve Bank of India), headed by its Governor, which is entrusted with the task of fixing the benchmark policy interest rate (repo rate) to contain inflation within the specified target level. 
  • This inflation target is set by the Central Government in consultation with the RBI for the medium term.
  • MPC was set up consequent to the agreement reached between Government and RBI to task RBI with the responsibility for price stability and inflation targeting. 
  • The Reserve Bank of India and Government of India signed the Monetary Policy Framework Agreement on 20 February 2015.
  • Altogether, the MPC has six members, – the RBI Governor (Chairperson), the RBI Deputy Governor in charge of monetary policy, one official nominated by the RBI Board and the remaining three members would represent the Government of India.
  • The MPC takes decisions based on majority vote (by those who are present and voting). 
  • In case of a tie, the RBI governor will have a second or casting vote. 
  • The decision of the Committee is binding on the RBI.

Source: The Hindu.


E Mobility

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Context

  • In a major decision to give a boost to Electric Vehicles in country, Union Minister of State for Power and New & Renewable Energy (IC) has approved amendments in Electric Vehicle Charging Guidelines and Specifications.

Changes proposed

  • In order to address the range of issues of the Electric Vehicle Owners, a phase-wise installation of an appropriate network of Charging Infrastructure throughout the country has been envisaged in the Guidelines ensuring that at least one Charging Station should be available in a grid of 3 Km X 3 Km in the cities and one Charging Station at every 25 Km on both sides of highways/roads.
  • It has been envisaged that in the first phase (i.e. 1-3 years) all Mega Cities with population of 4 million plus as per census 2011, all existing expressways connected to these Mega Cities & important Highways connected with each of these Mega Cities may be taken up for coverage, while in the second phase (3-5 years) big cities like State Capitals, UT headquarters may be covered for distributed and demonstrative effect. 
  • Further, important Highways connected with each of these Mega Cities may also be taken up for coverage.
  • To address the concerns in inter-city travel and long range and/or heavy duty EVs it has been provided that Fast Charging Station for long range and/or heavy duty EVs like buses/trucks etc., shall be installed at every 100 Kms, shall be installed one on each side of the highways/road located preferably within/alongside the Public Charging Station (PCS) mentioned above.
  • The above density/distance requirements shall be used by the concerned state/UT Governments/their Agencies for the land use planning for public charging stations as well as for priority in installation of distribution network including transformers/feeders etc by the DISCOMs. 
  • This shall be done in all cases including where no central/state subsidy is provided.
  • Assuming that most of the charging of EVs would take place at homes or at offices where the decision of using Fast or Slow chargers would rest on the consumers, it has been clarified in the guidelines that private charging at residences/offices shall be permitted and DISCOMs may facilitate the same.

Source: The Hindu.


Youth Co:Lab

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Image result for Youth Co:Lab

Why in News?

  • In the latest initiative to recognize young people as critical drivers of sustainable development, Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), NITI Aayog and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India launched Youth Co:Lab which aims at accelerating social entrepreneurship and innovation in young India.
  • Through Youth Co:Lab, young entrepreneurs and innovators will get a chance to connect with governments, mentors, incubators and investors, who will help equip them with entrepreneurial skills. 

Highlights

  • Co-created in 2017 by UNDP and the Citi Foundation, and operational in 25 countries across the Asia Pacific region, the Youth Co:Lab initiative aims to create an enabling ecosystem to promote youth leadership, innovation, and social entrepreneurship.
  • AIM and UNDP, as part of UNSDF signed between NITI Aayog and UN India, are collaborating to spread awareness about different issues pertaining to youth, the future of work and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) through Youth Co:Lab.
  • The first phase of Youth Co:Lab will focus on six SDGs: SDG 5 (Gender Equality), SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), SDG 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production) and SDG 13 (Climate Action).

Source: The Hindu.


National Disaster Response Fund

Focus: GS2.

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

Image result for National Disaster Response Fund

Context

  • Keeping in view the severity of flood situation and the fund positions in the State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) account of the States of Bihar and Karnataka, the Home Minister has approved advance release of Rs.400 crore to the State of Bihar and Rs.1200 crore to the State of Karnataka from National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) ‘on account basis’. 

About the fund

  • National Disaster Response Fund is defined in Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act) as a fund managed by the Central Government for meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation due to any threatening disaster situation or disaster. 
  • NDRF is constituted to supplement the funds of the State Disaster Response Funds (SDRF) of the states to facilitate immediate relief in case of calamities of a severe nature.
  • In the event of a disaster of a ‘severe nature’, in which the funds needed for relief operations exceeded the balances in the SDRF account, additional assistance would be provided from the NDRF after following prescribed procedures.
  • NDRF is located in the “Public Accounts” of Government of India under “Reserve Funds not bearing interest”. 
  • It is audited by the Comptroller and Auditor General Of India.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal ministry that oversees the functioning of the fund.

Source: The Hindu.

 

Map of the Day–Level of Economic Development


Image result for geography maps upsc


Quote for the Day


"Quality is not an act, it is a habit."--Aristotle.


Mains Answer Writing


1.Explain the pardoning powers of the President of India.
2.Discuss the complexities of Monetary Policy Committee.
3.Critically analyse the features of the E-Mobility mission.

 

Test your Knowledge


1. Consider the following statements 

1.‘Remission’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. 
2.‘Respite’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment.
3.‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. 

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above


2. Consider the following statements:

1.Repo rate, or repurchase rate, is the rate at which RBI lends to banks for short periods.
2.This is done by RBI buying government bonds from banks with an agreement to sell them back at a fixed rate.
3.Inflation target is set by the Central Government in consultation with the RBI for the long term.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above 


3. Consider the following statements:

1.The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Central Bank in India (Reserve Bank of India).
2.It is headed by the Ministry of Finance.
3.MPC was set up consequent to the agreement reached between Government and RBI to task RBI with the responsibility for price stability and inflation targeting. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above 


4.Consider the following statements:

1.National Disaster Response Fund is defined in Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act).
2.NDRF is located in the “Public Accounts” of Government of India under “Reserve Funds not bearing interest”. 
3.Ministry of Finance is the nodal ministry that oversees the functioning of the fund.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) All of the above 


5.Which of the following states does not border Nepal?

a.Uttarakhand
b.Bihar
c.Sikkim
d.Himachal Pradesh

 

Answers

  1. A 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.D