Daily Analysis

An in-depth analysis of the best and most relevant editorials of the day from the best dailies known for civil services preparation.

DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS, 25thMarch 2020

 

SHAHEEDI DIWAS (MARTYRS’ DAY)


Focus: GS1.

Topic: The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

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Context

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid tributes to Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru on the occasion of the Shaheedi Diwas (Martyrs’ Day).

 

About the Day

 

  • The anniversary of the deaths of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru on 23 March 1931, in Lahore is declared to be Martyr's Day.

  • Bhagat Singh conspired with revolutionaries like Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar, and Chandrashekhar Azad to kill Scott to avenge Lala Lajpat Rai's death. 

  • However, in a case of mistaken identity, the plotters shot John P. Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police.

  • Surfacing again in April 1929, he and another associate, Batukeshwar Dutt, exploded two improvised bombs inside the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi. 


Source: PIB.


COMMUNITY TRANSMISSION


Focus: GS2.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 


Context

The government of India is yet to confirm community transmission of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), but experts feel that community spread is already happening.

 

About the community transmission

 

  • In the simplest terms, community spread is when you do not know the source of the infection — you are unable to trace it back to someone who has travelled in an affected area overseas, or got it through contact with someone who is infected.

  • Community spread implies that the virus is now circulating in the community, and can infect people with no history — either of travel to affected areas, or of contact with the infected person.

  • In a situation of community transmission, it is theoretically possible for every person regardless of where they are from or whether they have been in contact, to spread the infection.

 

Source: Indian Express.


WORLD TUBERCULOSIS DAY


Focus: GS2.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 


Context

  • World Tuberculosis Day is being observed on March 24 with the theme “It’s Time”.

 

About the day

 

  • The objective is to build public awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB).

  • It is observed every year on 24th March, to commemorate the anniversary of Dr. Robert Koch’s discovery of the Tuberculosis (TB) bacteria in 1882.

  • It is one of the eight official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization (WHO). 

  • The other 7 are: World Health Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Hepatitis Day and World AIDS Day.

  • India has committed to end TB by 2025, five years ahead of the global targets. 

  • WHO recommends that either a tuberculin skin test  or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) be used to test for TB infection. 

  • WHO recommends new shorter options for preventive treatment in addition to the widely used 6 months of daily isoniazid. 

 

Source: WHO.

 

BODY COVERALLS

 

Focus: GS2.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

 

Context

Over the last 45 days, Ministries of Health & Family Welfare and Textiles are attempting to locate adequate number of sources who can produce and supply the requirement of Body Coveralls for the government.


Highlights

 

  • Since Body Coveralls (PPE) is a specialized protective suit meant for high level of protection to the health professionals, it has stringent technical requirements as prescribed by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

  • During the last week of January 2020, the technical standard for the Coveralls was prescribed as per WHO class-3 exposure pressure in accordance with ISO 16003 or its equivalent. Such materials are manufactured by a few international companies.

  • The supply of Body Coveralls from indigenous manufacturers according the MoH&FW’s revised technical requirement dated 2nd March 2020, has already commenced.

  • Government has also issued orders banning of exports of Body Coveralls to maintain a strong reserve of this essential medical product. 


Source: PIB.

 

ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA


Focus: GS2.

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

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Context

Anosmia and ageusia have emerged as peculiar tell-tale signs of COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, and possible markers of infection.

 

Highlights

 

  • Anosmia is the loss of sense of smell.

  • Ageusia is an accompanying diminished sense of taste.

  • British ear, nose and throat doctors, citing reports from colleagues around the world, called on adults who lose their senses of smell to isolate themselves for seven days, even if they have no other symptoms, to slow the disease’s spread.

 

Source: Indian Express.

 

SECTION 188 IPC

 

Focus: GS2.

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


Context

After the Janata Curfew on Sunday, Delhi and many other states took the Centre’s advice to enforce a full lockdown in districts to contain the spread of COVID-19.

Highlights

 

  • The orders issued to curb the spread of the coronavirus have been framed under the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897, which lays down punishment as per Section 188 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.

  • Section 188 IPC deals with the acts of disobedience committed against the orders passed by a public servant, lawfully empowered to pass such orders. 

  • According to sec.188 Indian Penal Code, disobedience to the order promulgated by the public servant is an offence. 

  • The term of punishment in the cases of IPC Section 188 differs on the basis of the gravity of the offence committed. 


Source: Indian Express.


FINANCE BILL


Focus: GS2.

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

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Context

The Lok Sabha was adjourned sine die after the passage of the Finance Bill, 2020 without any debate due to the situation arising out of the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

About the bill

 

  • A Finance Bill is a bill ordinarily introduced each year to give effect to the financial proposals of the Government for the following financial year and includes a Bill to give effect to supplementary financial proposals for any period.

  • The Finance Bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha immediately after the presentation of the annual budget, as directed by Article 110 (a) of the Constitution of India.

  • The Finance Bill becomes the Finance Act for the year concerned after it is passed by the parliament and receives assent of the President.

  • A Budget usually contains tax proposals for the upcoming financial year. 

  • The proposed changes pertain to existing laws dealing with various taxes in the country.

  • The Finance Bill makes required amendments to the tax laws concerned, thus obviating the need to bring out a separate amendment law in each case. 

  • It does so by over-riding provisions in the existing laws.

  • Finance Bills can be divided into three categories, viz. Finance bill category I, Finance bill category II and Money Bill.

  • Finance bills category I and II contain provisions on taxation and expenditure.

  • On the other hand, a Bill may be deemed as a Money Bill only if it has provisions pertaining to Consolidated Fund of India and results in imposition, abolition or alteration of central or state taxes. 


Source: Economic Times.

WORLD WATER DAY

 

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

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Context

The World Water Day 2020 was observed on 22nd March with theme "Water and Climate Change.”

 

About the World Water Day

 

  • World Water Day is an annual UN observance day observed on 22 March.

  • The objective is to advocate for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. 

  • The focus on universal access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is in line with the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 6.

  • This day was first formally proposed in Agenda 21 of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. 

  • In 1993, the first World Water Day was observed.

  • UN-Water is the convener for World Water Day. 


Source: Business Standard.


EXCISE DUTY CAP RAISED ON FUEL

 

Focus: GS3.

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

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Context

The government has raised the cap on special additional excise duty on petrol and diesel to Rs 18 and Rs 12 per litre, respectively, as per the amendments in the Finance Bill passed in the Parliament.


Highlights

 

  • This would help the government to raise excise duty on fuel further in future.

  • Last year’s Finance Act had put the cap at Rs 10 per litre for petrol and Rs 4 per litre for diesel. 

  • The change in the cap will enable the government to raise duties on petrol and diesel by another Rs 8 per litre each.

  • Every rupee hike in excise duty is expected to yield roughly Rs 13,000-14,000 crore annually. 

  • The slump in global crude oil prices enables the government to raise these duties substantially without immediately putting the burden on the consumer.

  • But there is expected to be a demand slowdown for fuels with a nearly country wide lockdown in the wake of coronavirus. 

  • With airlines, railways, trucks and passenger cars going off the roads, petrol, diesel and ATF (aviation turbine fuel) consumption is expected to fall drastically.

  • The excise duties on petrol and diesel include basic excise duty, special additional excise duty, and road and infrastructure cess, which is levied as additional excise duty. 


Source: Indian Express.


NATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING MISSION


Focus: GS3.

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

 

 

Context

Government of India informed parliament about the National Supercomputing Mission.

 

About the mission

 

  • India’s National Supercomputing Mission (NSM) was set up to meet the increasing computational demands of academia, researchers, MSMEs, and startups by creating the capability design, manufacturing, of supercomputers indigenously in India.

  • National Super Computing Mission is steered jointly by the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY) and Department of Science and Technology (DST) and implemented by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.

  • The target of the mission was set to establish a network of supercomputers ranging from a few Tera Flops (TF) to Hundreds of Tera Flops (TF) and three systems with greater than or equal to 3 Peta Flops (PF) in academic and research institutions of National importance across the country by 2022.

  • This network of Supercomputers envisaging a total of 15-20 PF was approved in 2015 and was later revised to a total of 45 PF (45000 TFs), a jump of 6 times more compute power within the same cost and capable of solving large and complex computational problems.

  • The first supercomputer assembled indigenously, called Param Shivay, was installed in IIT (BHU) and was inaugurated by the Prime Minister. 

  • Similar systems Param Shakti and Param Brahma were installed at IIT-Kharagpur and IISER, Pune.


Source: PIB.

 

Map of the Day–Equator countries

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Quote for the Day


"Don't be afraid to give up the good to go for the great." - John D. Rockefeller

Mains Answer Writing


  1. Examine the socio-economic impact of lockdowns proposed to contain COVID-19. (250 Words).

  2. Electronics sector presents a unique opportunity for the export sector in the country. (250 Words).

  3. Discuss the need and impact of technological advancement of the armed forces. (250 Words).


Test your Knowledge



  1. With reference to the Point-of-care testing, consider the following statements:

    1. It means results are delivered to patients in the patient care settings, like hospitals, urgent care centres and emergency rooms, instead of samples being sent to a laboratory.

    2. The test will be able to provide results within hours, rather than days like the existing tests.

    3. This is approved by WHO.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

 

      1. 1 and 2 only

      2. 1 and 3 only

      3. 2 and 3 only

      4. 1, 2 and 3

 

  1. With reference to the SOLIDARITY trial, consider the following statements:

    1. It was organized by FAO.

    2. It announced a large international clinical trial to test five treatment regimens.

    3. The streamlined randomized trial can be adjusted based on countries' availability of the drugs and can be adjusted to include other arms.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

 

      1. 1 and 2 only

      2. 2 and 3 only

      3. 1, 3 and 4 only

      4. AOTA

 

  1. With reference to the Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, consider the following statements:

    1. They are oral prescription drugs.

    2. It has been used for treatment of malaria and certain inflammatory conditions.

    3. Both drugs have in-vitro activity against SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and other coronaviruses, with hydroxychloroquine having relatively higher potency against SARS-CoV-2.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

 

      1. 1 and 2 only

      2. 2 only

      3. 1 and 3 only

      4. 1, 2 and 3

 

  1. V K Paul Committee, recently seen in news, is related to:

      1. guide the prevention and control activities in the country against COVID-19.

      2. decide the appropriate level of reserves that the RBI should hold.

      3. review the Operation of the Cash Credit System.

      4. Look into control measures against terror attacks.

 

  1. Which of the following is the largest mass nesting site for the Olive-ridley turtles?

      1. Coast of Odisha

      2. Coast of Kerala

      3. Coast of Tamil Nadu

      4. Coast of Gujarat


Answers

  1. A2.B 3.D4.A 5.A