Yojana

Compilation of monthly magazine YOJANA and KURUKSHETRA.

GIST OF YOJANA – JUNE 2020

TECHNOLOGY

Atmanirbhar Bharat

Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi has announced the launch of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan during his address to the nation on 12th May 2020.

What are the key highlights of the Abhiyan?

  • As part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, Prime Minister announced a special economic package and gave a clarion call for Atmanirbhar Bharat.

  • This special economic package, along with earlier announcements made by the government during the COVID crisis and decisions taken by RBI, is to the tune of Rs 20 lakh crore, which is equivalent to almost 10% of India’s Gross Domestic Product (USD 2.72 lakh crore(2018)).

  • As mentioned in his address to the nation, the package will also focus on land, labour, liquidity and laws.

  • It will cater to various sections including cottage industry, MSMEs, labourers, middle class, and industries, among others.

  • The package will provide a much needed boost towards achieving ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’.

What are the five pillars of self-reliant India?

  • Economy - which brings in quantum jump and not incremental jump 

  • Infrastructure - which should become the identity of India 

  • System - based on 21st century technology driven arrangements 

  • Vibrant Demography - which is our source of energy for a self-reliant India 

  • Demand - whereby the strength of our demand and supply chain should be utilised to full capacity

Industry 4.0

A Pilot Project for ushering in ‘Industry 4.0’ in the country is launched for implementation at the Modern Coach Factory (MCF), Raebareli.

What is Industry 4.0?

  • ‘Industry 4.0’ commonly referred to as the fourth industrial revolution, is a name given to the current trend of automation, interconnectivity and data exchange in manufacturing technologies to increase productivity.

  • Industry 4.0 is a complex Cyber-Physical Systems which synergizes production with digital technologies, the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data & Analytics, Machine Learning and Cloud Computing.

  • Therefore, the architecture to be conceptualized and formulated in MCF initially would be gradually expanded in a phased manner to encompass all complexities that constitute Industry 4.0 in all manufacturing spheres in the country.

  • Full transition to the digital factory using ‘Industry 4.0’ across entire value chain from design to production will help enhance productivity hugely by providing insight into production process and also make the decisions in real-time basis.

  • This will also help in minimizing human errors by effective monitoring to ensure that resources are put to the best utilization measured by, what is called the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).

  • Such a National Policy for Advanced Manufacturing envisages that manufacturing sector should contribute at least 25% to GDP.

  • All over the world, countries who have been able to achieve phenomenal growth, could do that with the advent of rapid strides in manufacturing sector. 

  • This initiative in Railways may have wider ramifications to spur growth in defence production as well as in private manufacturing sector also.


What are different Industrial Revolutions?

  • The first industrial revolution followed the proto-industrialization period. 

    • It started at the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th. 

    • The biggest changes came in the industries in the form of mechanization. 

    • Mechanization was the reason why agriculture started to be replaced by the industry as the backbone of the societal economy.

  • Following the first Industrial Revolution, almost a century later we see the world go through the second. 

    • It started at the end of the 19th century, with massive technological advancements in the field of industries that helped the emergence of a new source of energy. Electricity, gas, and oil.

  • The third revolution brought forth the rise of electronics, telecommunications and of course computers. 

    • Through the new technologies, the third industrial revolution oped the doors to space expeditions, research, and biotechnology.

  • Industry 4.0 started in the dawn of the third millennium with the one thing that everyone uses every single day. 

    • The Internet. We can see the transition from the first industrial revolution that rooted for technological phenomenon all the way to Industry 4.0 that develops virtual reality worlds, allowing us to bend the laws of physics.

What are different Technologies helping the Pace of Industry 4.0?

  • The Internet of Things (IoT)

  • Smart Manufacturing, Smart Factories 

  • Big Data

  • The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

  • Cloud Computing

  • Cognitive Computing

  • Cyber-physical Systems (CPS)

  • Additive Manufacturing

  • AI & Blockchain

What are the impacts of Industry 4.0?

  • It helps relieve poverty and improve people’s standard of living. 

  • With Artificial Intelligence and fast-paced internet like 5G, there will be better diagnosis, cheaper and better medical services. 

  • The emergence of new and innovative technologies helps undertake better security, surveillance and search and rescue operations. 

  • India has currently announced a new drone policy that allows for efficient security, traffic, and mapping. 

  • It will help connect every last village in the country to ensure better government services and improved infrastructure for all. 

  • AI will play a significant role in changing the lives of specially-abled people. 

  • It promotes ease of living and ease of doing business. 

  • The improved early warning systems, weather forecasting systems, etc., assure improved disaster management, reduction of causality, faster evacuations, etc. 

  • The improvement in the fields of biotechnology, AI, pest control mechanism, innovative irrigation systems, etc., allows for increased crop production.

Conclusion

  • The above-mentioned benefits are very few among the vast opportunities that exist within the Industrial Revolution 4.0. 

  • Currently, India is facing a massive unemployment crisis. 

  • With the emergence of new technologies, new skills are required to man these technologies. 

  • As a result of this, many may lose their jobs or won’t have the skills that are in demand. 

  • Industrial Revolution 4.0 can become a liability if proper government measures aren’t taken to reduce the unemployment rate. 

  • However, if the Government takes the needed initiatives to make full use of the huge population and the technologies arising from the Fourth Industrial Revolution, India will soon become a highly developed economy.

AIM : Fostering Innovation

Sustainable development is the practice of improving human life while protecting the environment. It is perhaps the most important and the most formidable long-term challenge that the world faces. Creative thinking has always been essential for improving national well-being.

How is it a rise of social entrepreneurship?

  • New inventions and innovations in agriculture, mass production, transportation and communication during the Industrial Revolution were largely responsible for proving Economist, Thomas Malthus wrong, who predicted that the world couldn’t support an exponentially increasing population.

  • Social entrepreneur is a creature of his or her time—a hybrid that combines the driving passion for improving a lot of excluded groups with the practical, innovative and opportunistic traits of the entrepreneur.

  • Social entrepreneurs are focused on the delivery of public goods using business approaches. 

  • They are too busy finding the solutions that will allow all people to participate as active producers and consumers in the local, national and global economies.

How is India gathering momentum as innovator?

  • India, as a country is surrounded with challenges that demand.

  • The last few years have seen innovation in India reach a tipping point with the emergence of innovative Indian companies, the large-scale social innovations and now the big impact innovations in public service. Social enterprises are beginning to leverage Innovation.

  • SKS Microfinance has successfully innovated on the Grameen Bank Microfinance Model. 

  • This Business Model Innovation has figured out a unique way to ‘scale up’ the penetration and impact of a Microfinance organisation. 

  • SKS has acquired a membership of 5.7 million, across 16 States in 11 years.

What is Atal Innovation Mission?

  • The Government of India has set up Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the
    country.

  • AIM’s objective is to develop new programmes and policies for fostering innovation in different sectors of the economy, provide platform and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders, create awareness and create an umbrella structure to oversee innovation ecosystem of the country. 

  • Six major initiatives taken in first year of its establishment:

    • Atal Tinkering Labs- Creating problem-solving mindset across schools in India.

    • Atal Incubation Centres- Fostering world-class startups and adding a new dimension to the incubator model.

    • Atal New India Challenges- Fostering product innovations and aligning them to the needs of various sectors/ministries.

    • Mentor India Campaign- A national Mentor network in collaboration with public sector, corporates and institutions, to support all the initiatives of the mission.

    • Atal Community Innovation Centre- To stimulate community centric innovation and ideas in the unserved /underserved regions of the country including Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities.

    • ARISE- To stimulate innovation and research in the MSME industry.

Digital Platforms

  • During COVID-19 pandemic, Indian government’s use of digital technology and providing information on national portals, mobile apps or through social media platforms is the game changer to reach to the masses.

  • Timely information, direct money transfer to the poor, needy and vulnerable groups can help save many lives and at this point the digital apps developed by the government are playing an important role in responding to the crisis.

  • The Prime Minister also while addressing the nation on 12th May, 2020 gave a call for ‘self-reliant India’ and mentioned how with direct benefit transfer during corona crisis, government has been able to transfer funds directly to the actual beneficiary accounts and able to curb corruption and leakages.

What is Aarogya Setu App?

  • The ‘Aarogya Setu’ App enables people to assess themselves the risk for their catching the coronavirus infection.

  • It calculates this based on people’s interaction with others, using cutting-edge bluetooth technology, algorithms and artificial intelligence.

  • Once installed in a smartphone through an easy and user-friendly process, the app detects other devices with Aarogya Setu installed that come in the proximity of that phone.

  • The App can then calculate the risk of infection based on sophisticated parameters if any of these contacts is tested positive.

  • The App is helping the government to take necessary and timely steps for assessing risk of spread of COVID-19 infection, and ensuring isolation where required.

  • The App’s design ensures privacy-first and the Government, after apprehensions from some people has assured users about the data safety and security of the app.

  • The personal data collected by the App is encrypted using state of-the-art technology and stays secure on the phone till it is needed for facilitating medical intervention and is available in 11 languages.

What are other apps?

  • Chatbot:

    • The Government of India has launched a WhatsApp chatbot so that the citizens can get instant and authentic answers to all of their queries related to the Coronavirus pandemic. 

    • Users have to drop a ‘Hi’ on the number +91-9013151515 or can call on the MyGov Corona Helpdesk to get answers to pertinent queries such as the symptoms of the deadly disease, nearest COVID-19 testing facility.

  • Corona Kavach:

    • It is a COVID-19 tracker application, created by the Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

    • This application provides users with realtime location of infected users who have activated the ‘Kavach’ feature.

  • COVID-19 Feedback:

    • This application has been developed by the centre to get direct feedback from people who have undergone coronavirus treatment in the country.

  • COVID-19 National Helpline:

    • A 24×7 National Helpline number +91-11-23978046 and toll-free number 1075 have been launched where people can access corona related information by the government.

    • Also, the centre has an e-mail id: ncov2019@gov.in to attend to queries of people related to the disease.

  • SAMPRAC:

    • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an app called ‘SAMPRAC’ to enable tracking people under quarantine. 

    • It is software that includes an app that can be installed on the smart phones of the infected COVID-19 patients. 

    • It is a server-side application that is used by the state authorities to track the patients.

  • SAHYOG:

    • The Survey of India (SoI) has developed an e-platform that collects geotagged information on the nation’s critical infrastructure in order to help the government and public health agencies take critical decisions in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic situation.

    • The platform has geo-located information of hospitals, testing labs, quarantine camps, containment and buffer zones as well as information on biomedical waste disposal sites.


Social Media: The Force Multiplier

  • Social media has become a game changer in the way federal, regional, and local government agencies are engaging, interacting, and communicating with citizens.

  • The Indian Government has been at the forefront of these emerging trends–it has rapidly adopted the latest digital technologies and embraced new forms of social media communication tools in the discharge of its governance and administrative duties.

What is the background?

  • The Government of India’s ambitious Digital India Programme is aimed at transforming India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.

  • This initiative is anchored by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), but is implemented across the federal framework of the country covering central, state, and local organisations in both the public and private space.

  • Most government departments and agencies now maintain an active presence on the popular social media channels. 

  • They have created official accounts, have large number of followers, and regularly share news updates, departmental notifications, or public announcements on their channels. 

  • Not just departmental accounts even executive officers, bureaucrats, politicians, ministers etc. are active on social media and regularly cross share (or retweet) each other’s’ updates.

  • The content they share can be of any form–videos, images, presentations, text, pdfs, GIFs etc, though videos are often the most engaging format and evoke the best viewer response.

What are their applications?

  • Social media is now increasingly being used by governments to reach out to citizens during crisis/ disaster Management.

  • The Indian Government’s MyGov platform has proven to be popular with citizens in their engagement.

  • Social media has emerged as a very impactful, real-time channel for citizen grievances and support.

  • Amongst governmental agencies, police departments are arguably one of the most active users of social media channels.

  • Some government agencies are using social media hiring channels for attracting best-in-class talent for their job vacancies. 

    • “LinkedIn” is a popular online recruitment platform–here is an example of a vacancy posted by NISG (National Institute of Smart Government) for technical positions in UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) which runs the Government of India’s Aadhaar program.

  • Social media bridges the distance between nations on the internet. Many governments agencies are using social media channels effectively to engage with their foreign counterparts. 

    • Embassies and foreign consulates are active on Twitter and Facebook, engaging with each other or sharing important updates to their citizens.

  • Real time traffic updates and advisories get regularly shared in the metropolitan cities via the local Traffic Police social media accounts. 

  • The government (as an entity) is the largest producer and buyer of goods and services in the country. It’s buying (or procurement) is largely based on open tendering process, which gives everyone a chance to participate in an unbiased, non-discriminatory way.

  • The internet is fundamentally participatory in character–people openly share their knowledge, skills, and experiences in the belief that others can benefit from it.

  • The government has launched various service delivery apps for its citizens. Social media is a key channel to drive awareness about these apps and get people to download them. 

  • Citizens want ready access to government departments and its functioning officers. Given the size and expanse of the official setup, it is often not easy to figure out who is the concerned officer-in-charge (in whose jurisdiction the case falls) and their contact details. Social media can come to the rescue in some cases.


International Day of Yoga

  • While addressing the 69th session of United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on September 27, 2014, the Honorable Prime Minister of India urged the world community to adopt an International Day of Yoga. 

  • On December 11, 2014, the 193 member UNGA approved the proposal by consensus with a record 177 cosponsoring countries, a resolution to establish 21 June as “International Day of Yoga”.

What is the Background?

  • Yoga is essentially a spiritual discipline based on an extremely subtle science which focuses on bringing harmony between mind and body. 

  • It is an art and science for healthy living. 

  • The word “Yoga” is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘yuj’ meaning “to join”, “to yoke” or “to unite”. 

  • According to Yogic scriptures, the practice of Yoga leads to the union of an individual consciousness with the universal consciousness. 

  • According to modern scientists, everything in the universe is just a manifestation of the same quantum firmament. 

  • One who experiences this oneness of existence is said to be “in Yoga” and is termed as a yogi who has attained a state of freedom, referred to as mukti, nirvāna, kaivalya or mokṣa.

  • “Yoga” also refers to an inner science comprising of a variety of methods through which human beings can achieve union between the body and mind to attain self-realisation. 

  • The aim of Yoga practice (sādhana) is to overcome all kinds of sufferings that lead to a sense of freedom in every walk of life with holistic health, happiness and harmony.

What are the benefits of Yoga?

  • Yoga is beneficial for physical fitness, musculoskeletal functioning and cardio-vascular health.

  • It is beneficial in the management of diabetes, respiratory disorders, hypertension, hypotension and many lifestyle related disorders.

  • Yoga helps to reduce depression, fatigue, anxiety disorders and stress.

  • Yoga helps to regulate menstrual and menopausal symptoms.

  • In essence, Yoga is a process of creating body and mind that are stepping-stones, not hurdles, to an exuberant and fulfilling life.

Tropical Cyclones

  • Tropical cyclone Amphan intensified rapidly in the Bay of Bengal to become a “Super Cyclonic Storm” – the equivalent of  a strong Category 4/weak Category 5 on the Saffir Simpson scale. 

  • It weakened ahead of landfall on Wednesday 20 May as a very severe cyclonic storm (strong Category 2 equivalent), bringing dangerous winds, storm surge and flooding to coastal areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh.

  • Amphan (pronounced Um-Pun) impacted densely populated areas, including the Indian city of Kolkata (Calcutta) at a time when restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic is complicating disaster management – and making it more necessary than ever before.

How are Tropical Cyclones named?

  • Tropical cyclones can last for a week or more; therefore there can be more than one cyclone at a time. 

  • Weather forecasters give each tropical cyclone a name to avoid confusion.

  •  Each year, tropical cyclones receive names in alphabetical order.

  • Women and men’s names are alternated. 

  • The name list is proposed by the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) of WMO Members of a specific region, and approved by the respective tropical cyclone regional bodies at their annual/bi-annual sessions. 

  • Nations in the western North Pacific began using a new system for naming tropical cyclones in 2000.

  • There is a strict procedure to determine a list of tropical cyclone names in an ocean basin by the Tropical Cyclone Regional Body responsible for that basin at its annual/biennial meeting. 

  • There are five tropical cyclone regional bodies, i.e. ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones, RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee, RA IV Hurricane Committee, and RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee.

  • Hurricane Committee determines a pre-designated list of hurricane names for six years separately at its annual session. 

  • The pre-designated lists of hurricane names are proposed by its Members that include National Meteorological and Hydrological Services in the North/Central America and the Caribbean. 

  • Naming procedures in other regions are almost the same as in the Caribbean.

  • In some of the regions, the lists are established by alphabetical order of the names. 

  • In other regions, the lists are established following the alphabetical order of the country names. 

  • In general, tropical cyclones are named according to the rules at a regional level.

  • World Meteorological Organization maintains rotating lists of names which are appropriate for each Tropical Cyclone basin. 

  • If a cyclone is particularly deadly or costly, then its name is retired and replaced by another one.

Conclusion

  • It is important to note that tropical cyclones/hurricanes/typhoons are not named after any particular person. 

  • The tropical cyclone/hurricane/typhoon names selected are those that are familiar to the people in each region.

  • Obviously, the main purpose of naming a tropical cyclone/hurricane is basically for people easily to understand and remember the tropical cyclone/hurricane/typhoon in a region, thus to facilitate tropical cyclone/hurricane/typhoon disaster risk awareness, preparedness, management and reduction.

Swasth Vayu

SIR-National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) Bangalore, a constituent of lab of CSIR has developed a Non Invasive BiPAP Ventilator in a record time of 36 days to treat COVID-19 patients.

What is the Background?

  • BiPAP Non Invasive ventilator is a microcontroller-based precise closed-loop adaptive control system with a built-in biocompatible “3D printed manifold and coupler” with HEPA filter (Highly Efficient Particulate Air Filter). 

  • These unique features help to alleviate the fear of the virus spread. 

  • It has features like Spontaneous, CPAP, Timed, AUTO BIPAP modes with provision to connect Oxygen concentrator or Enrichment unit externally. 

  • The system has been certified for safety and performance by NABL accredited agencies. 

  • The system has undergone stringent biomedical tests and beta clinical trials at NAL Health Centre.

What are the advantages?

  • The major advantage of this machine is that it is simple to use without any specialised nursing, cost effective, compact and configured with majority of indigenous components.

  • This is ideal for treating COVID-19 patients in Wards, Make shift Hospitals, dispensaries and home in current Indian COVID-19 scenario.

  • CSIR-NAL is in process of taking it forward with the regulatory authorities for the approval and expected to get shortly. 

  • CSIR-NAL has already initiated dialogue with major public/private industries as a partner for mass production.

  • Non-invasive Ventilator with externally connected Oxygen concentrator will be ideal to treat moderate or mid-stage severe COVID-19 patients who do not require intubation and invasive ventilation.

Kisan Sabha App

  • In present situation of COVID 19, farmers are looking for help in their harvest reaching the market, seed/fertilizer procurement, etc. 

  • A robust supply chain management is urgently required to facilitate the timely delivery of the produce at the best possible prices.

  • Kisan Sabha App has been developed by CSIR Central Road Research Institute (CSIR-CRRI), New Delhi to connect farmers to supply chain and freight transportation management system.

What are the Highlights of the portal?

  • The portal connects the farmers, transporters, Service providers (like pesticides/ fertilizer/ dealers, cold store and warehouse owner), mandi dealers, customers (like big retail outlets, online stores, institutional buyers) and other related entities for timely and effective solution.

  • The portal acts as a single stop for every entity related to agriculture, be they a farmer who needs better price for the crops or mandi dealer who wants to connect to more farmers or truckers who invariably go empty from the mandis.

  • KisanSabha also works for people in agriculture services sector such as dealers of fertilizers/ pesticides, who can reach out to more farmers for their services.

  • It would also prove to be useful for those associated with cold store(s) or godown(s). KisanSabha also provides a platform for people who want to buy directly from the farmers.

  • Kisan Sabha has 6 major modules taking care of Farmers/Mandi Dealers/Transporters/Mandi Board Members/ Service Providers/Consumers.

Conclusion

  • Kisan Sabha aims to provide the most economical and timely logistics support to the farmers and to increase their profit margins by minimizing interference of middlemen and directly connecting with the institutional buyers.

  • It will also help in providing best market rates of crops by comparing nearest mandis, booking of freight vehicle at cheapest cost thereby giving maximum benefit to the farmers.


 
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