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EDITORIAL ANALYSIS

Why lightning still kills so many Indians?

The Editorial covers GS paper 3 [Disaster and disaster management.]

Lightning kills more than 100 in northern India - BBC News

Context

  • Lightning strikes have caused 1,771 deaths between April 1, 2019 and March 31, 2020, according to a report published on December 31 on lightning incidents in India. 

  • The report has been prepared by Climate Resilient Observing Systems Promotion Council (CROPC), a non-profit organisation that works closely with India Meteorological Department (IMD) along with Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), India Meteorological Society (IMS) and World Vision India to disseminate early lightning forecasts.

What is the current statistics?

  • Uttar Pradesh with 293 deaths, Madhya Pradesh 248, Bihar 221, Odisha 200 and Jharkhand 172 deaths together accounted for more than 60 per cent of the numbers, which are 33 per cent of total fatalities from all natural disasters during the time period. 

  • In 2018-19 period, there were 2,800 deaths and the drop has been attributed to the efforts of various stakeholders, including CROPC. 

  • In order to further reduce deaths, the report suggests states “aggressively participate in Lightning Resilient India Campaign and undertake lightning risk management more comprehensively”.

What are the reasons behind this?

 

  • Although forecasts and warnings are made available through mobile text messages, it is not available in all regions. 

  • A large number of deaths occur due to this as not much awareness has been undertaken.

  • As per the report, interestingly, the Government of India and most states have not notified lightning as a disaster. 

  • There has always been a large number of animal fatalities due to lightning. 

  • Although the Ministry of Animal Husbandry has an Animal Disaster Management Plan, there hasn’t been any compliance pertaining to lightning fatalities.

How does lightning occur?

 

  • Lightning is the process of occurrence of a natural ‘electrical discharge of very short duration and high voltage between a cloud and the ground or within a cloud’, accompanied by a bright flash and sound, and sometimes thunderstorms. 

  • Inter cloud or intra cloud (IC) lightning which are visible and are harmless. 

  • It is cloud to ground (CG) lightning, which is harmful as the ‘high electric voltage and electric current’ leads to electrocution.

What is the story of Odisha?

  • Odisha had 11.20 lakh plus lightning strikes—the highest in the country—with only 200 casualties. 

  • During Cyclone Fani, the state saw more than one lakh intense lightning strikes on May 3 and May 4 in 2019. More than 1.2 million people were evacuated to cyclone shelters. 

  • “Odisha had zero casualty, mainly due to all 891 cyclone shelters being fitted with Lightning Arresters,” said the report.

  • On the other hand, Gujarat recorded 35 deaths and on April 10, 2019 a strike on Banaskantha Refinery triggered a fire that resulted in a loss of Rs 25 crore. 

  • Bihar had half the lightning strikes than Jharkhand, but had more deaths.

What are the recommendations of the report?

 

  • Climate Resilient Observing Systems Promotion Council chairperson Col Sanjay Kumar Srivastava (Retd), who is also convener of the Lightning Resilient Campaign, said seeing the adverse impact, a large number of affected states have notified lightning as state specific disaster.

  • “However, since this is not a notified disaster as per the Ministry of Home Affairs, lightning risk management does not get required attention in national policy directives and developmental programmes,” he said, adding that it needs to be notified at the earliest looking at its impact.

  • The NDMA has issued comprehensive guidelines for preparations of Lightning action plans to states, but the large number of fatalities show the implementation also needs a more ‘scientific and focused community centric approach’ as well as convergence of various departments.


Conclusion

Mapping of lightning is a major breakthrough in identifying the precise risk in terms of lightning frequency, current intensity, energy content, high temperature and other adverse impacts. With continuous mapping for at least three years, a climatology can be established. This would yield a Lightning Risk Atlas map for India which will form the basis for a lightning risk management programme.


Source: Indian Express.